Fraud or rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, affecting outcome of an election result either by increasing the vote share of a favored candidate or by cancelling out the share of rival candidates or both.

Although technically the term 'electoral fraud' covers only those acts, which are illegal, it is sometimes used to describe acts, which are legal but considered morally unacceptable, outside the spirit of electoral laws, or in violation of the principles of democracy.

Specific methods include electorate manipulation, manipulation of demography, disenfranchisement, intimidation, vote buying, misinformation, misleading or confusing ballot papers, ballot stuffing, misuse of proxy votes, destruction or invalidation of ballots and tampering with electronic voting machines. s.

Electoral fraud can occur at any stage in the democratic process, but most commonly it occurs during election campaigns, voter registration or during vote-counting.
The two main types of electoral fraud are :

  1. preventing eligible voters from casting their vote freely (or from voting at all)
  2. altering the results

Following violationsamount to rigging or fraud under Article 68 of the election law.

  1. Presenting wrong information required by the Independent Electoral Complaints Commission (IECC)
  2. Multiple registrations for nomination
  3. Obtaining election-related material forbidden for candidates such as ballot papers
  4. Having more than one ID cards or voter registration cards
  5. Casting ballot using a fake voter card
  6. Voting on someone else’s card
  7. Casting multiple votes
  8. Forgery of documents
  9. Burning or loss of documents
  10. Hiding of relevant documents
  11. Involvement of unauthorised people in evaluation of election-related documents
  12. Displaying ofposters of candidates and their symbols in polling stations
  13. Use of government institutions’ insignias in campaign papers
  14. Hampering works of election workers
  15. Violation of orders of observers, election commission workers
  16. Violation of laws for media people
  17. Misuse of funds for elections, bribes
  18. Accepting funds or other technical assistance from foreigners
  19. Disgracing candidates, observers and election employees
  20. Inciting violationof laws and other illegal acts
  21. Rigging during voting, results and other affairs
  22. Receiving bribes to influence results
  23. Ignoring laws and orders of IECC, IEC and media monitoring commission
  24. Preventing foreign and national observers from watching the process
  25. Changing the number of votes evenif it doesn’t affect the outcome
  26. Use of force in polling stations to influence results
  27. Attempting to disturb the election process or create social unrest
  28. Creating problems for eligible voters
  29. Influencing election workers and observers by using uniforms of security forces

Article 1 of presidential decree about elections says:

  1. Voters cannot be forced to reveal their choice; disturbance in a direct or indirect manner in the voting process is not allowed
  2. Government machinery should not be used for cobbling together an alliance of candidates unless the law permits
  3. Introduction of permanent and contractual employees to the election commission who may pursue other goals
  4. Support for candidates through misuse of government positions is not allowed
  5. Ban on giving gifts and presents to permanent and contract employees of IEC
  6. Ban on entry of armed individuals into polling stations
  7. Ban on participation of government employees in election rallies during office timings
  8. Ban on providing unnecessary information to candidates, political parties and workers

To counter rigging and fraud, the IEC says:

  1. The voter registration card is marked with a hole to prevent multiple use
  2. The voter’s finger should be inked
  3. Availability of special stamps at polling stations
  4. Ballotboxes will be sealed in presence of observers and candidate representatives
  5. Vote count will start quickly at polling station in presence of candidate representatives and observers
  6. Results will be announced on the spot.Representatives of candidates and other officials can obtain copies of results